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The Fluted Minaret (Yivli Minare) is the symbol of the city.
Seal of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality
Antalya is located in Turkey
Location of Antalya
Coordinates: 36°54′N 30°41′ECoordinates: 36°54′N 30°41′E
Type Metropolitan municipality
Mayor Mustafa Akaydın (CHP)
City 1,417 km2 (547 sq mi)
Elevation 30 m (100 ft)
Density 478/km2 (1,240/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 07x xx
Area code(s) 0242
Licence plate 07
Antalya (Turkish pronunciation: [anˈtalja]; from Ancient Greek: Aττάλεια, "Attalia") is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. It was the world's third most visited city by number of international arrivals in 2011, displacing New York. It is Turkey's biggest international sea resort.
According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, in 2011 the city had a population of 964,886 and the metropolitan municipality 1,041,972
See also: Antalya Province#History for details of this area in antiquity
Hadrian's Gate, built in the honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian, who visited Antalya in the year 130.
It is uncertain when the site of the current city was first inhabited. Attalos II, king of Pergamon, was believed to have founded the city around 150 BC, naming it Attalia and selecting it as a naval base for his powerful fleet. However, excavations in 2008 in the Doğu Garajı district have uncovered remains dating to the 3rd century BC, suggesting that the city was founded earlier than previously supposed. Antalya became part of the Roman Republic in 133 BC when King Attalos III of Pergamon willed his kingdom to Rome at his death. The city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period.
Christianity started to spread in the region after 2nd century. Antalya was visited by Paul of Tarsus, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles: "From Perga, Paul and Barnabas went down to Attalia and sailed from there to Antioch after preaching in Pisidia and Pamphylia" (Acts 14:25-26).
Hıdırlık Tower, a 2nd century fortification in the Karaalioğlu Park.
Antalya was a major city in the Byzantine Empire. It was the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Carabisiani (Θέμα Kαραβησιάνων, Thema Karavēsianōn), which occupied the southern coasts of Anatolia and the Aegean Islands. At the time of the accession of John II Comnenus in 1118 it was an isolated outpost surrounded by Turkish beyliks, accessible only by sea.
The city and the surrounding region were conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the early 13th century. Antalya was the capital of the Turkish beylik of Teke (13211423) until its conquest by the Ottomans. The Arabic traveler Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in 1335-1340, noted:
From Alanya I went to Antaliya [Adalia], a most beautiful city. It covers an immense area, and though of vast bulk is one of the most attractive towns to be seen anywhere, besides being exceedingly populous and well laid out. Each section of the inhabitants lives in a separate quarter. The Christian merchants live in a quarter of the town known as the Mina [the Port], and are surrounded by a wall, the gates of which are shut upon them from without at night and during the Friday service. The Greeks, who were its former inhabitants, live by themselves in another quarter, the Jews in another, and the king and his court and Mamluks in another, each of these quarters being walled off likewise. The rest of the Muslims live in the main city. Round the whole town and all the quarters mentioned there is another great wall. The town contains orchards and produces fine fruits, including an admirable kind of apricot, called by them Qamar ad-Din, which has a sweet almond in its kernel. This fruit is dried and exported to Egypt, where it is regarded as a great luxury.
In the second half of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi wrote of a city of narrow streets containing 3,000 houses in 20 Turkish and four Greek neighborhoods. The town had grown beyond the city walls and the port was reported to hold up to 200 boats.
The Ottoman era clock tower and the 18th century Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque in the city center, before pedestrianization in 2008.
In the 19th century, in common with most of Anatolia, its sovereign was a "dere bey" (land lord or landowner). The family of Tekke Oğlu, domiciled near Perge had been reduced to submission in 1812 by Mahmud II, but continued to be a rival power to the Ottoman governor until within the present generation, surviving by many years the fall of the other great beys of Anatolia. The records of the Levant (Turkey) Company, which maintained an agency in Antalya until 1825, documented the local dere beys.
In the 20th century the population of Antalya increased as Turks from the Caucasus and the Balkans moved into Anatolia. By 1911 it was a city of about 25,000 people, including many Christians and Jews, still living in separate quarters around the walled mina or port. The economy was centered on its port that served the inland areas, particularly Konya. Antalya (then Adalia) was picturesque rather than modern. The chief attraction for visitors was the city wall, and outside a promenade, a portion of which survives. The government offices and the houses of the higher classes were outside the walls.
The city was occupied by the Italians from the end of the First World War until the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Large-scale development beginning in the 1970s transformed Antalya from a pastoral town into one of Turkey's largest metropolitan areas. Much of this has been due to tourism, which expanded in the 21st century.
According to tradition, in the 2nd century BC the Pergamon king Attalos II ordered his men to find "heaven on earth". After an extensive search, they discovered the region of Antalya. Attalos rebuilt the city, giving it the name "Attaleia" (Greek: Αττάλεια) which later mutated in Turkish as Adalia and then Antalya. Attaleia was also the name of a festival at Delphi and Attalis (Greek: Ἀτταλίς) was the name of an ancient Greek tribe at Athens.
Lower Düden Fall with Lara in the background.
Upper Düden Fall
The metropolis of Greater Antalya consists of five boroughs: Konyaaltı (112,647), Kepez (399,006), Muratpaşa (416,576), Aksu ( 45,094), and Döşemealtı (27,995).
Antalya is in south-west Anatolia, on the Mediterranean Gulf of Antalya, approximately 546 kilometres (339 mi) from Ankara, 562 kilometres (349 mi) from Adana, 466 kilometres (290 mi) from Izmir, and 727 kilometres (452 mi) from Istanbul.
The Taurus mountains of southern Anatolia runs parallel to the Mediterranean in an east-west direction, resulting in the formation of narrow coastal plains surrounded by mountains on three sides and the sea on the fourth. Some parts of the coast feature mountains plunging sharply into the sea, forming small natural bays and peninsulas. Antalya is situated on one such plain where the mountains recede from the shore, consisting of two flat areas formed of travertine rock at a mean height of 35 metres (115 ft); the citycenter is on the rocky plain closest the coast, with urban sprawl extending to the Kepezüstü Plain further inland.
The area is shielded from the northerly winds by the Taurus Mountains. Antalya has a Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and mild and rainy winters. Around 300 days of the year are sunny, with over 3000 hours of sunlight per year. The sea temperature ranges between 15 °C (59 °F) in winter and 28 °C (82 °F) in summer. The air temperature reaches high of up to 45 °C (113 °F) in July and lows down to −4 °C (25 °F) in February - the average temperature is in the low to mid 30 °C (86 °F)
The economy of Antalya used to depend on a mixture of tourism, agriculture, and commerce, with some light industry. Agricultural production includes citrus fruits, cotton, cut flowers, olives, olive oil and bananas. Antalya Metropolitan Municipalitys covered wholesale food market complex meets 65% of the fresh fruit and vegetable demand of the province.
Since 2000, shipyards have been opened in Antalya Free Zone, specialized in building pleasure yachts. Some of these yards have advanced in composites boat building technology.
Corendon Airlines and SunExpress have their head offices in Antalya.
Main article: Tourism in Antalya
Konyaaltı Beach as seen from the nearby cliffs. The Beydağları mountains can be seen in the background.
Kaleiçi, with its narrow cobbled streets of historic Ottoman era houses, is the old center of Antalya. With its hotels, bars, clubs, restaurants, and shopping, it has been restored to retain much of its historical character; its restoration has won the Golden Apple Tourism Prize. Cumhuriyet Square, the main square of the city, is the location for temporary open air exhibitions and performances. The city also features sites with traces of Lycian, Pamphylian, and Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman architecture and cultures. International luxury hotels stand along the coast above the Konyaalti and Lara beaches.
Festivals and events
A number of sports championships including motor rallies and the 2010 World Weighlifting Championships.
Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival: Turkey's largest national film festival, last week of September
International Eurasia Film Festival: International film festival held annually
Antalya Festival: September
Mediterranean International Music Festival: October, 6 days
Antalya International Folk Music and Dance Festival Competition: Last week of August
Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival: June and July
Flower festival May
Antalya has beaches including Konyaaltı, Lara and Karpuzkaldıran. For winter sports, Beydağları and Saklikent are both natural beauties of the city.
There are a number of mosques, churches, madrasahs, masjids, hans (caravanserai) and hamams (Turkish bath) in the city. Kaleiçi, the harbor, which the city walls enclose, is the oldest part of the city. Kaleiçi features many historic houses with traditional Turkish and local Greek architecture.
Historic sites in the city center
The Atatürk Monument at Cumhuriyet Meydanı (Republic Square.)
Kaleiçi: the historical center of the city.
Ancient monuments include the City Walls, Hıdırlık Tower, Hadrian's Gate (also known as Triple Gate), and the Clock Tower.
Hadrian's Gate: constructed in the 2nd century by the Romans in honor of the Emperor Hadrian.
İskele Mosque: A 19th century Mosque near the Marina.
Karatay Medrese: A Medrese (Islamic theological seminary) built in 1250 by Emir Celaleddin Karatay.
Kesik Minare (Broken Minaret) Mosque: Once a Roman temple then converted to a Byzantine Panaglia church and finally into a mosque.
Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque: An 18th-century Mosque built in honor of Tekeli Mehmet Paşa.
Yat Limanı: the harbour dating to Roman era.
Yivli Minare (Fluted Minaret) Mosque: Built by the Seljuks and decorated with dark blue and turquoise tiles, this minaret eventually became the symbol of the city.
Antalya Museum: Prize winning archaeology museum.
Kaleiçi Museum: Opened in 2007 by the Mediterranean Civilizations Research Center (Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi)
Atatürk's House Museum
Antalya Toy Museum. The Antalya Metropolitan Municipality opened the exhibition facility in 2011.
Suna & İnan Kıraç Kaleiçi Museum : A ethnographic museum run by the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation.
Sites of interest
Konyaaltı Beach Park
Akdeniz University is located in Antalya. Antalya International University and AKEV Antalya University are expected to begin classes in September 2012.
Scene around Kaleiçi, the old city center.
A view of Antalya's coastline.
Antalyas signature cuisine includes Piyaz (made with tahini, garlic, walnuts, and boiled beans), spicy hibeş with mixed cumin and tahini, şiş köfte, tandır kebap, domates civesi, şakşuka, and various cold Mediterranean dishes with olive oil. One local speciality is tirmis, boiled seeds of the lupin, eaten as a snack. "Grida" (also known as Lagos or Mediterrenean white grouper) is a fish common in local dishes.
Kenan Evren Avenue (popularly known as "Konyaaltı Avenue") with a tram line.
The main transportation to the city is by air and land. Sea routes are still under development. In 2007, the airport added a new terminal.
The city has a main port at the south of the Konyaaltı.
There is a network of look-alike Dolmuşes that are privately owned and operated minibuses, under municipal government control.
Antalya Ulasim, a municipally-owned corporation, runs the public bus system. The corporation owns Antobus and Antray. Antobus was started in September 2010. In 2010, the city planned to increase from 40 to 140 more buses.
Payment for public transportation was made in cash until the launch of a public transportation card, Antkart, in late 2007. The card system met with criticism and was subsequently canceled in June 2009, returning to a cash system. Halkkart has been used for the transportation system since the summer of 2010. Halkkart is managed by A-Kent Smart City Technologies under the control of Antalya Metropolitan Municipal government. Passengers can use identified cards to take buses or trams.
The tram system runs from Antalya Museum and the Sheraton Voyager and Falez hotels, along the main boulevard to the city center at Kalekapisi, Hadrian's Gate, Karaalioglu Park, and ending at Talya Oteli. Trams depart on the hour and half-hour from the terminal (east and west), and reach Kalekapisi between 10 and 15 minutes later.
In December 2009, a 11.1 kilometres (6.9 mi) light rail line Antray was opened from one of the main city public bus hub northwest to the Zoo and beyond to suburban areas.
The infrastructure such as roads and drains are struggling to catch up with the increase in population and tourists.
Antalya Airport has two international terminals and one domestic terminal. In 2007, its number of passengers on international flights surpassed the total number at Istanbul Ataturk Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport for the first time, officially earning the title of "the capital of Turkish tourism".
Antalya Parti Malzemeleri