Daha Büyük Görüntüle
1. Uzun Street; 2. Trabzon at night; 3. Zagnos valley;
4. Faroz port; 5. Walls of Trabzon; 6. Hagia Sophia;
7. Sümela Monastery; 8. Uzungöl; 9. Atatürk pavilion
Trabzon is located in Turkey
Location of Trabzon within Turkey.
Coordinates: 41°00′N 39°44′E
Mayor Orhan Fevzi Gümrükçüoğlu (AKP)
Total 4,685 km2 (1,809 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Total 230,399 (City proper)
Density 258.7/km2 (670/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 61xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 462
Trabzon (see other names, Turkish pronunciation: ['trabzon]) is really a town round the Black Sea coastline of north-eastern Poultry and also the money of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, positioned throughout the historic Silk Highway, grew to be a melting pot of religions, languages and tradition for countless a long time in addition to a trade gateway to Iran inside of the southeast and in addition the Caucasus in the direction of the northeast. The Venetian and Genoese vendors compensated appointments with Trebizond throughout the medieval period and supplied silk, linen and woolen cloth using the Republic of Genoa finding a vital merchant colony within the town that seemed like Galata in close proximity to Constantinople (north in excess of the Golden Horn) in present-day Istanbul. Trabzon developed the inspiration of innumerable states while in the prolonged heritage referred to as the cash through the Empire of Trebizond amongst 1204 and 1461. During the Ottoman time period, Trabzon, because of the significance of its port, grew to be a concentration of trade to Iran in addition to the Caucasus. The populace from your centre urban is 230,399 (2009 census.)
The Turkish identify from the metropolis is Trabzon. It is historically acknowledged as Trebizond, Trapezund, Tribisonde and Trapezus. In Latin, Trabzon was termed Trapezus, which can be the latinization from the Ancient Greek ????????? (Trapezous), the initial title of your metropolis. Both of those in Pontic Greek and Contemporary Greek, it is termed ??????????? (Trapezounta). In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it's authored as ??????. Through Ottoman situations, Tara Bozan was also used. Some western geographers employed this name as opposed to the Latin Trebizond. In Laz it is identified as ?????? (T'amt'ra) or T'rap'uzani. as well as in Georgian it's ?????????(T'rap'izoni). The 19th century Armenian travelling priest Byjiskian named the city by other, native names, like Hurşidabat and Ozinis
Historic and medieval
A silver Greek drachma Trapezus coin within the 4th century BC
The city was launched as ????????? (Trapezous) by Milesian traders (756 BC). It was certainly one of a amount (about 10) of Milesian emporia or investing colonies alongside the shores in the Black Sea. Many others include things like Sinope, Abydos and Cyzicus (inside the Dardanelles). Like most Greek colonies, the town was a tiny enclave of Greek existence, instead of an empire unto its own, in the later European feeling from the term. Early banking (money-changing) exercise is suggested developing while in the city in accordance to some silver drachma coin from Trapezus during the British Museum, London.
Trebizond's trade companions incorporated the Mossynoeci. When Xenophon plus the Ten Thousand mercenaries were fighting their way from Persia, the primary Greek city they reached was Trebizond (Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.five.ten). The city and the community Mossynoeci experienced grow to be estranged from your Mossynoecian money, towards the position of civil war. Xenophon's drive settled this during the rebels' favor, and so in Trebizond's desire.
The town was added to your kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates VI Eupator and it became property port for the Pontic fleet.
Walls of Trabzon
Should the kingdom was annexed towards the Roman province of Galatia in 64-65, the fleet passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica. Trebizond attained significance less than Roman principle inside the 1st century because of its access to roads leading more than the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the higher Euphrates valley. New roadways had been constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia beneath the principle of Vespasian, and Hadrian commissioned enhancements to provide the city a more structured harbor. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church of Panaghia Theoskepastos in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south in the modern harbor. The town was pillaged by Goths in 258, and, although it had been later on re-built, Trebizond didn't recover right up until the trade route regained relevance during the eighth to tenth generations; tenth century Muslim authors notice that Trebizond was frequented by Muslim retailers, as the principal source transshipping Byzantine silks into eastern Muslim nations around the world. In Byzantine periods, the city was the money on the concept of Chaldia. It was also dominated by Danishmendids amongst 1080 and 1098.
A fourteenth-century miniature Greek manuscript depicting Byzantine Greek troopers with the Empire of Trebizond.
İmmediately after the Fourth Crusade in 1204, a Byzantine successor condition was launched there with guidance of Queen Tamar of Georgia, the Empire of Trebizond, which ruled portion of the Black Sea coast from Trebizond until finally 1461, when its ruler, David, surrendered to Mehmed II, ruler of your Ottoman Empire. Next this takeover, Mehmed despatched a lot of Turkish settlers to the space, although the old ethnic Laz, Armenian, and Greek communities remained. During the late Ottoman period of time, the city had an incredible Christian have an effect on regarding lifestyle, in addition to a rich merchant course who produced quite a few Western consulates.
See also: Trebizond Eyalet and Trebizond Vilayet
The city turned piece of your Ottoman Empire after 1461. Throughout Bayezid II's reign, his son, Prince Selim was the sancakbeyi of Trabzon, and his son Suleiman I from the Ottoman Empire was born in Trabzon in 1495. Trabzon turned the capital on the Vilayet of Trebizond, which was a vilayet of your north-eastern portion from the Ottoman Empire. The population in the town was in 1523 in accordance with the Ottoman defter a total of one,473 grownup males. 85% from the whole inhabitants was Christian, 1,252 grownup males, 13% of the overall population was Armenian, 197 grownup males and 15% on the overall inhabitants was Muslim, 221 adult males.
For the duration of Ottoman period, Regional Chepni and Laz beys ended up appointed as beylerbey. It is recorded that even some Bosniak beys appointed by Elegant Porte ruled Trabzon as beylerbey. All through Ottoman campaign in Europe (XVI-XVII c.), "beylerbeylik" of Trabzon experienced generally sent troops.
Port of Trabzon within the 1920s.
Uzun Sokak, one of many busiest pedestrian purchasing streets in Trabzon.
In 1901 the harbour was geared up with cranes by Stothert and Pitt of Bath in England. The city was the positioning of 1 in the important battles amongst the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of Earth War I which resulted while in the capture of Trabzon by the Russian Caucasus Army below command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. Russian typical Shvartz's military triggered a large destruction in Trabzon. Russians banned Muslim mosques, and forced Turks, who were being the leading ethnic team from the town, to depart Trabzon. Finally, the Russian Army retreated through the town and also the relaxation of eastern and northeastern Anatolia together with the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Trabzon was an essential Armenian extermination centre for the duration of the Armenian Genocide, in addition to a spot of subsequent trials (see Trabzon through the Armenian Genocide). Several in the victims were taken out to sea in boats which were then capsized. The Trabzon trials reported Armenians having been drowned from the Black Sea.
Subsequent the Turkish War of Independence along with the annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was changed because of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), Trabzon once again became a component of Turkey. Throughout Earth War II delivery exercise was confined because the Black Sea experienced all over again turn out to be a war zone. For this reason one of the most crucial export merchandise, tobacco and hazelnut, couldn't be sold and residing requirements degraded.
Consequently of the normal advancement from the nation, Trabzon has formulated its financial and industrial existence. The coastal highway as well as a new harbour have amplified business relations with Central Anatolia, which has led to some development. Nevertheless, progress has been slow when compared with the western as well as southwestern areas of Turkey.
Trabzon is known through Turkey because of its anchovies identified as hamsi, that happen to be the leading meal in several eating places inside the city. Significant exports from Trabzon are hazelnuts and tea.
The city might still have a tiny local community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally with the vicinities of Tonya and Of. Even so, the Pontic Greek language (called Romeiaka or ????????, Pontiaka) is spoken largely because of the more mature generations
Geography and local climate
Sümela Monastery for the Pontic Mountains in close proximity to Trabzon.
Trabzon Province incorporates a overall spot of 4685 km² and is particularly bordered because of the provinces of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The whole place is 22.4% plateau and 77.6% hills. The Pontic Mountains pass through the Trabzon Province.
Trabzon used to be a vital reference stage for navigators inside the Black Sea throughout severe weather conditions ailments. The well known expression "perdere la Trebisonda" (shedding Trebizond) remains to be normally utilized in the Italian language to describe scenarios through which the sense of course is misplaced. The Italian maritime republics these as Venice and in specific Genoa ended up active while in the Black Sea trade for centuries, employing Trabzon as an crucial seaport for trading goods in between Europe along with the Middle East.
Değirmendere (historical Piksidis), Yanbolu, Fol, Karadere, Koha, Sürmene (historic Manahos) ve súrmene (küçük dere), Solaklı, Baltacı and İyidere (historic Kalopotamos.)
Lake Uzungöl around Trabzon.
Uzungöl, Çakırgöl, Sera Gölü.
Trabzon provides a climate standard with the Black Sea region with plentiful precipitation. Under the Köppen weather classification, it's an oceanic weather (Cfb). Summers are warm and humid, as well as the typical utmost temperature is close to 27 °C (eighty one °F) in August. Winters are great and moist, as well as the lowest regular minimum amount temperature is around 5 °C (41 °F) in January.
Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and wintertime, with a marked reduction in the summertime months. Snowfall is fairly typical in between the months of December and March, snowing for the month or two, and it may be significant after it snows.
The h2o temperature, like while in the remainder of the Black Beach of Turkey, is usually neat and fluctuates among eight °C (46 °F) and 20 °C (sixty eight °F) throughout the year.
Basilios Bessarion was born in Trabzon on January 2, 1403.
Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon on November 6, 1494.
The current ethnic background of the people of Trabzon is mostly Turkish. The main language of these ethnic groups is Turkish. Locals self-identifying as Turks consists of a variety of different ethnic groups; mostly Chepni Turkmens and Georgian Laz people but also smaller groups of Muslim Greeks (Romeyka-speakers) and Armenians (Hemshin). Modern migration since the dissolution of the Soviet Union has brought a significant number of Russians, Ukrainians and people from the Caucasus (mostly Georgia) into the city. Russian language shops and facilities can be found in the town.
Pontic Greek has been spoken in the region since early antiquity. The local dialect developed along its own lines and is today partly intelligible to speakers of Standard Greek. It was spoken mainly by a Greek Orthodox multi-ethnic population up to the population exchange; nearly all speakers of this local variant of Pontic Greek are now Muslims. A very similar dialect is spoken by a community of about 400 speakers, descendants of Christians from the Of valley now living in Greece in the village of Nea Trapezounta (New Trebizond) which is a part of Kalamaria, a municipality forming part of Thessaloniki.
Laz people (Georgians), who are aboriginal to this area, also live in Trabzon. Numerous villages inside and out of Trabzon of the Laz Georgians date back as early as the period of Queen Tamar's rule (Georgian: თამარი, also transliterated as T'amar or Thamar; c. 1160 18 January 1213) in the newly unified Kingdom of Georgia. During the Queen's rule, sizeable groups of immigrating Georgians moved to Trabzon where they continue to preserve their native tongue. There was an Armenian community in Trebizond as early as the 7th century.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, numerous Armenian families migrated here from Ani. According to Ronald C. Jennings, in the early 16th century, Armenians made up approximately 13 percent of the city's population. At present, Trabzon does not have an Armenian-speaking community.
The Chepni people, a tribe of Oghuz Turks who played an important role in the history of the eastern Black Sea area in the 13th and 14th centuries, live in the Şalpazarı (Ağasar valley) region of the Trabzon Province. Very little has been written on the Turkification of the area. There are no historical records of any considerable Turkish-speaking groups in the Trabzon area until the late 15th century, with the exception of the Chepnis. The original Greek (and in some regions Armenian) speakers imposed features from their mother language into the Turkish spoken in the region. Heath W. Lowry's work with Halil İnalcık on Ottoman tax books (Tahrir Defteri) provides detailed demographical statistics for the city of Trabzon and its surrounding areas during the Ottoman period.
It is possible that the majority of the population of Trabzon and Rize (and other ancient Greek colonies in the Pontus region) except up to the time of the Chepni Turk immigration waves consisted of indigenous Caucasian tribes (the Colchians and the Laz) who had been partly Hellenized religiously and linguistically. Michael Meeker stresses the cultural resemblances (e.g. in village structure, house types, and pastoral techniques) between the Eastern Black Sea coast and the areas in the Caucasus proper.
Atatürk Square in Trabzon
Trabzon has a number of tourist attractions, some of them dating back to the times of the ancient empires that once existed in the region. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the Meydan, a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden.
The Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Ayasofya Müzesi), a stunning Byzantine church, is probably the town's most important tourist attraction.
Trabzon Castle ruins are visible in the town but cannot be visited as they fall in a military zone. The outside wall of the castle now serves as the back wall of a military building.
The "Atatürk Köşkü" is a villa built in 1890 by a local Greek merchant. In 1924 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk stayed in the villa during his visit to Trabzon. He stayed there again in 1937. It houses period rooms and serves as a monument to the memory of the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey.
Boztepe Park is a small park and tea garden on the hills above Trabzon that has a panoramic view of nearly the entire city. The terrain in Trabzon is ascending in such a way that although the view is far above that of the buildings below, it is still close enough to be able to observe the flow of traffic and the people moving about in the city.
Uzun Sokak is one of the most crowded streets of Trabzon.
Trabzon Museum is located in the town centre and offers interesting exhibits on the history of the region, including an impressive collection of Byzantine artifacts.
Trabzon's Bazaar District offers interesting shopping opportunities on ancient narrow streets, continuing from Kunduracılar Street from the Meydan (town square).
Kostaki Mansion is located to the north of Zeytinlik near Uzun Sokak.
Other sites of the city include: Fatih Mosque (originally the Panagia Khrysokephalos Church), Yeni Cuma Mosque (originally the Agios Eugenios Church), Nakip Mosque (originally the Agios Andreas Church), Hüsnü Köktuğ Mosque (originally the Agios Elevtherios Church), İskender Pasha Mosque, Semerciler Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, Gülbahar Hatun Mosque and Türbe (commissioned by Sultan Selim I), Kalepark (originally Leonkastron).
Within Trabzon Province, the main attractions are the Sümela Monastery (i. e. the Monastery of the Panagia Soumelá) and the Uzungöl lake. The monastery is built on the side of a very steep mountain overlooking the green forests below and is about 50 km south of the city. Uzungöl is famous for the natural beauty of the area and the amazing scenery. Other important sites of interest in the broader region include:
Kaymaklı Monastery, a formerly Armenian Monastery of the All-Saviour (arm. Ամենափրկիչ Վանք, Amenaprgič Vank),
Kızlar Monastery of Panagia Theoskepastos (the God-veiled Virgin),
Kuştul Monastery of Gregorios Peristereotas (gr. Ιερά Μονή του Αγίου Γεωργίου Περιστερεώτα, Ierá Moní tou Agíou Georgíou Peristereóta),
Vazelon Monastery of Agios Savvas (Maşatlık),
Cave churches of Agia Anna (Little Ayvasıl), Sotha (St. John), Agios Theodoros, Agios Konstantinos, Agios Christophoros, Agia Kyriakí, Agios Michail and Panagia Tzita churches.
Map of Trabzon's city centre, showing its walls, main streets, sights and parks.
The 10th century Trebizond Gospel is a testimony into the inventive traditions of the town throughout the medieval time period.
Folk dancing remains greatly in proof during the Black Sea region. The "Horon" can be a famed dance which is indigenous to the city and its bordering spot. It is executed by guys, adult females, the younger and aged alike; in festivities, neighborhood weddings and harvest situations. Though related to Russian Cossack dances with regards to vividness, the Trabzon folks dance is most likely indigenous on the eastern Black Sea location, that has a formidable assortment of people new music .
The persons of Trabzon have got a name for becoming religiously conservative and nationalist. A lot of Trabzonites typically exhibit a solid perception of loyalty for their loved ones, friends, religion and region. Atatürk selected his presidential guards from Trabzon plus the neighbouring city of Giresun owing to their intense battling capability in addition to their loyalty.
Outside of the comparatively city place of Trabzon proper, and inside of sections of it also, rural traditions from the Black Sea village existence remain flourishing. These include things like standard gender roles, social conservatism, hospitality plus a willingness to aid strangers; and all aspects, both equally good and unfavorable, of an agrarian lifestyle, this sort of as effort, poverty, robust family members ties, and a closeness to nature.
The people of the eastern Black Sea location are identified for their wit and perception of humour; in reality a lot of jokes in Turkey are informed concerning the natives of the Black Sea region Karadeniz fıkraları (Black Sea jokes). The character Temel, a universal buffon determine discovered in lots of cultures, sorts a very important component on the Turkish oral tradition.
The city's profile was lifted to some degree within the English-speaking world by Dame Rose Macaulay's final novel, The Towers of Trebizond (1956), that's nevertheless in print.
Education and learning
A view through the KTU campus.
Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon hosts students from all over Turkey, in particular in the Black Sea and East Anatolian regions, together with students within the Turkic states in Central Asia.
Traditionally the city was a center of Greek society and instruction and from 1683 to 1921, a teachers' school operated known as Phrontisterion of Trapezous, which given a serious impetus for that swift enlargement of Greek schooling through the location. The making of this establishment nevertheless continues to be the most spectacular Pontic Greek monument within the metropolis and these days hosts the Turkish college Anadolu Lisesi.
Trabzon's regional cuisine is ordinarily reliant on fish, specially hamsi (clean European Anchovy related for the British Sprat or American Smelt). Trabzon fulfills 20% of your complete fish development in Turkey. Regional dishes consist of the Akçaabat köfte (spicy lamb meatball in the Akçaabat district), Karadeniz pidesi (canoe formed pita bread, typically crammed with ground beef, cheese and eggs), kuymak (a Turkish fondue manufactured with cornmeal, fresh new butter and cheese), Vakfıkebir ekmeği (big country-style bread), Vakfıkebir tereyağı (Vakfıkebir butter), tava mısır ekmeği (deep-dish corn bread) and kara lahana çorbası (bean and cabbage soup). Taflan kavurması can be a cherry laurel dish served with onions and olive oil. Trabzon can be famous for its hazelnuts. The Black Sea region of Turkey will be the world's greatest producer of cherry and hazelnut; along with a substantial output region of tea; all of which engage in a vital position from the area cuisine.
Trophies gained by Trabzonspor in the club's museum.
Football is certainly the preferred activity in Trabzon, as Trabzonspor was right until 2010 the only real Turkish club in Anatolia to get the Turkish Tremendous League (six instances), to be the "Big Three" of Istanbul (Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Beşiktaş) experienced earlier dominated and continue to take action. Due to Trabzonspor's achievement, the decades-old time period "Big Three" which outlined the biggest clubs of Turkey had to generally be modified into the "Big Four".
Trabzonspor is also one of many most profitable Turkish golf equipment in the European Cups, taking care of to defeat many well known teams these as Barcelona, Inter, Liverpool, Aston Villa and Olympique Lyonnais. Distinguished previous gamers of Trabzonspor consist of Şenol Güneş, Lars Olsen and Shota Arveladze.
Trabzon hosted the very first Version of your Black Sea Online games in July, 2007 and will host the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Pageant.
European Olympic Committees President Patrick Hickey advised Olympic İnformation resource Throughout the Rings the European Youth Olympic Festival in Trabzon can be an ideal platform to get a 2020 Olympic Bid from Istanbul. "If Istanbul is going to generate a bid, undoubtedly the Trabzon Video games will probably be an awesome platform, should they clearly show they could run a very good occasion at that level. It is then an excellent indicator of even larger factors to come," he claimed.